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Additional Resources

Orthopedic Websites

American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons
Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America
International Hip Dysplasia Institute
International Perthes Study Group
Ponseti International
Scoliosis Research Society

Broken Bones and Injury

Elbow Fractures in Children
Forearm Fractures in Children
Growth Plate Fractures
Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture
Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis
Throwing Injuries in the Elbow in Children

Diseases and Syndromes

Bone, Joint, and Muscle Infections in Children
Bowed Legs
Cerebral Palsy
Down Syndrome: Musculoskeletal Effects
Erb's Palsy (Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy)
Juvenile Arthritis
Limb Length Discrepancy
Muscular Dystrophy
Nonossifying Fibroma
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
The Limping Child

Foot and Ankle

Flexible Flatfoot in Children
Vertical Talus
Metatarsus Adductus (MTA)


Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH)
Perthes Disease
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis
Snapping Hip

Knee and Leg

Adolescent Anterior Knee Pain
Discoid Meniscus
Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Knee Pain)

Spine and Neck

Back Pain in Children
Congenital Scoliosis
Congenital Torticollis (Twisted Neck)
Kyphosis (Roundback) of the Spine
Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents
Scoliosis: Frequently Asked Questions
Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis

Sports, Exercise, and Activity

Female Athletes: Health Problems Caused by Extreme Exercise and Dieting
Flexibility Exercises for Young Athletes
Physical Activity for Children
Exercise and Bone Health


Flexibility Exercises for Young Athletes
High School Sports Injuries
Sports Concussion

Sports Injury Prevention

Gymnastics Injury Prevention
A Guide to Safety for Young Athletes
Baseball Injury Prevention
Basketball Injury Prevention
Football Injury Prevention
Golf Injury Prevention
Helmet Safety
Hockey Injury Prevention
Skiing Injury Prevention
Soccer Injury Prevention
Swimming Injury Prevention
Tennis Injury Prevention
Volleyball Injury Prevention

Prevention and Safety

Vitamin D for Good Bone Health

At Play

Backpack Safety
Helmet Safety
Inline Skating Injury Prevention
Scooter-Related Injury Prevention
Skateboarding Safety
Sledding Injury Prevention

Motor Vehicle

All-Terrain Vehicle Safety
Child Safety Seats


Playground Safety Guide
Playground Safety: Tips for Kids


What Is a Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon?